Timothy Raeymaekers


Violent Capitalism and Hybrid Identity in Eastern Congo: Power to the Margins, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press (2016).

Edited volumes

Raeymaekers, T. (2013) The Mediterranean migration frontier, in ACME: an International E-Journal for Critical Geographies.

Korf, B. and Raeymaekers, T. eds. (2013) Violence on the margins: states, conflict, and borderlands, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T., eds. (2004) Conflict and social transformation in Eastern DR Congo, Gent, Academia Press (English and French).

Arnaut, K., Hojbjerg, C. et Raeymaekers, T. (eds.) Gouvernance et ethnographie en temps de crise: de l’étude des ordres émergents dans l’Afrique entre guerre et paix, Politique africaine, n° 111, octobre 2008.

Raeymaekers, T. and Vlassenroot, K. (eds.) governance without government in Africa’s protracted crises, Afrika Focus, 21 n° 2, December 2008 (This edited collection, the outcome of a laborious collective endeavour between the Universities of Ghent, Copenhagen and Davidson College has – notwithstanding its publication in a non-Thompson index journal – generated wide international acclaim for its pioneering reconceptualization of political rule under conditions of protracted armed crisis in Africa (particularly Ivory Coast, DRC, Sudan and Somalia). 

Book chapters

Raeymaekers, T. (2014) The social geography of violent conflict, in: Bruck, T., Justino, P. and Verwimp, P., eds., Micro-level perspective on the dynamics of conflict, violence and development, Oxford and malden, Oxford University Press.

Raeymaekers, T. (2014 forthcoming), Captured in movement: the precarious space of youth displacement in eastern DRC, in Hammar, A., ed., ‘Displacement Economies: Paradoxes of Crisis and Creativity in African Contexts’, London, Zed Books.

Raeymaekers, T. (2012d), The State, the economy and the subaltern: routines of state formation in the Congo-Ugandan borderland, in: Donnan, H. and Wilson, T.M. The Blackwell Companion to Border Studies, Basingstoke: Blackwell.

Raeymaekers, T. (2008a) Verval of orde: naar een nieuwe theorie van “state collapse” in Afrika, in: Doom, R. (ed.) Conflict en Ontwikkeling. Overleven in de grensgebieden van de globalisering, Gent, Academia press, 2008.

Raeymaekers, T. (2008) Conflict and food security in Beni-Lubero, in: Alinovi, L., Hemrich, G., Russo, L. (ed.) Beyond relief. Food security in protracted crises, Bourton on Dunsmore, Practical Action Publishing, 2008.

Vlassenroot, K., Ntububa, S. and Raeymaekers, T. (2008) Food security responses to the protracted crisis context of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in: Alinovi, L., Hemrich, G., Russo, L. (ed.) Beyond relief. Food security in protracted crises, Bourton on Dunsmore, Practical Action Publishing, 2008.

Raeymaekers, T. and Vlassenroot, K., Le politiche di ribellione nell’Ituri. Ordino politico nel “cuore di tenebra”, in: Fiamingo, C. (ed.), Conflitti d’Africa, Roma, Aracne editrice, 2006.

Vlassenroot, K., Ntububa, S. and Raeymaekers, T., Food security responses to the protracted crisis context of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (French and English), report for FAO-Food Security Information for Action, 2006.

Raeymaekers, T., Conflict and food security in Beni-Lubero, (French and English), report for FAO-Food Security Information for Action, 2006.

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T. (2005) ‘Divisez par deux’: conflict and artisan mining in Kamituga (South Kivu), in: Reyntjens, F. and Marysse, S., L’Afrique des Grands Lacs. Annuaire 2004-2005, Paris, L’Harmattan.

Raeymaekers, T., De Verenigde naties en laakbare handelspraktijken in de DR Congo : lessons learned, in: Nauwelaerts, F. (ed.) Bedrijven in Conflictgebieden, Roeselare, Roularta Books, 2004.

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T., le conflit en Ituri, in: Reyntjens, F. and Marysse, S., L’Afrique des Grands Lacs. Annuaire 2002-2003, Paris, L’Harmattan, 2003.


a) Peer reviewed in social science index

Raeymaekers, T. (2013) Postwar conflict and the market for protection: the challenges to Congo’s hybrid peace, International Peacekeeping, pp. 1-18.

Raeymaekers, T. (2012) Reshaping the state in its margins. The state, the market and the subaltern on a Central African frontier, in: Critique of Anthropology, vol. 32 no. 3 (September), pp. 334-350 (This article is an agenda-setting paper situated on the edges of political anthropology and geography. It has spiralled wider academic reflection on the linkages between protracted armed conflict and the transformation of political rule in ‘the margins’. As such it bridges the gap between the ethnography of violence and border(land) studies).

Vlassenroot, K. & T. Raeymaekers (2009) Kivu’s intractable security conundrum, in: African Affairs, 108 (432), pp. 475-484.

Raeymaekers, T. (2010) Protection for Sale? War and the transformation of regulation on the Congo-Ugandan Border, in: Development and Change, 41/4, pp. 563-587 (This article, part of a special issue edited by Tobias Hagmann and Didier Peclard) constitutes more or less my introduction to development studies in of its leading journals and with a wide impact among leading scholars in the field).

Raeymaekers, T. and Jourdan, L. (2009) Economic opportunities and local governance on an African frontier. The case of the Semliki Valley (Congo‐Uganda), in: Journal of Eastern African Studies, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 317 – 332.

Raeymaekers, T. (2009) The silent encroachment of the frontier: a politics of transborder trade in the Semliki Valley (Congo-Uganda), in: Political Geography, 28/1 (January ), pp. 55-65.

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T. (2004) The politics of rebellion and intervention in Ituri: the emergence of a new political complex? in: African Affairs, Volume 103, n° 412, (July), pp.  385-412 (impact factor 1.336).

b) Peer reviewed

Raeymaekers, T. (2010): Not going home: displaced youth after war, in: Forced Migration Review, 36, pp. 21-22.

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T., Le elezioni nella Repubblica Democratica del Congo: in cammino verso la democrazia? Afriche e Orienti, 3-4/ 2007.

Beneduce, R., Jourdan, L., Raeymaekers, T. and Vlassenroot, K. (2006) Violence with a purpose: exploring the functions and meaning of violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo , in: Intervention, the International Journal of Mental Health, Psychosocial Work and Counseling in Areas of Armed Conflict, vol. 4/1, pp. 32-46

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T., Transizione verso la pace nella Repubblica Democratica del Congo ?, in: Afriche e Orienti, 2/2005.

Raeymaekers, T., Su contadini e uomini d’affari: l’economia reale del “Grande Nord”, in: Afriche e Orienti, anno VI, n.1-2/2004.

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T., Conflitto a transizione in Congo , dossier Afriche e Orienti, 1-2/2004.

Non-peer reviewed

Korf, B. und Raeymaekers, T. (2012) Geographie der gewalt, in: Geographische Rundschau, 64 (2), pp. 4-11.

Raeymaekers, T. (2011) Forced Displacement and Youth Employment in the Aftermath of the Congo War: From Making a Living to Making a Life, MICROCON Research Working Paper 38 (November), Brighton, Institute for Development Studies.

Raeymaekers, T. (2010) Borders in a ‘‘borderless’’ world, in: Political Geography, 29 (3), pp. 177-181, March, pp. 177-181.

Raeymaekers, T. (2005) The challenges of frail, failing and failed states, in: Studia Diplomatica, vol. LVIII/2, pp. 35-44.

Raeymaekers, T., Collapse or Order? Questioning State Collapse in Africa, Conflict Research Group Working Paper n°1, May 2005.

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T., The Formation of Centres of Power, Profit and Protection. Conflict and Social Transformation in Eastern DR Congo, Centre of African Studies, University of Copenhagen, January, 2005.

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T., The Formation of New Political Complexes: Dynamics of Conflict in Ituri, Democratic Republic of Congo, Centre of African Studies, University of Copenhagen, October 2003.

Divulgated writings

Raeymaekers, T. (2012) Why history ‘repeats itself’ in eastern DR Congo, in: e-International Relations, 12 December.

Raeymaekers, T. (2009) Osama en de veertig smokkelaars, (Over)leven op de Congolees-Oegandese grens, in: MO*, 28 januari 2009.

Raeymaekers, T. (2007) Sharing the spoils: the reinvigoration of Congo’s political system, in: Politorbis n° 42 (October 2007).

Raeymaekers, T., Network war: an introduction to Congo ’s privatised war economy, Novib, Den Haag, November, 2002 (I still regard this report as my prime contribution to civil society activism in the political ecology of resource conflicts. It has led to several juridical and parliamentary investigations, led to actual arrests and generated a wide public debate about the role of Northern capitalist society in the perpetuation of armed conflict in Subsaharn Africa. It continue to regard this report as a vital source of inspiration in my work). For pdf click here. 

Cuvelier, J, and Raeymaekers, T. (2002) Supporting the war economy in DRC: European companies and the coltan trade, Broederlijk Delen, Brussels. For pdf click here.

Recent Posts


MigrArti Film festival 2017 has decided to grant the ‘best director’ award to JULULU during the 74th Venice Film Festival. Jululu is described as a “musical journey in a corner of Africa situated in Southern Italy”, which brings us to the problems of farm labourers in the region of Puglia.

The shortfilm, which was born from an idea of ​​Sestilia Pelicano and Yvan Sagnet, was produced by Lazy Film. The photography is by Stefano Usberghi and directed by Michele Cinque. The storyboard comes from the dual perspective of Yvan Sagnet and Badara Seck.

Badara Seck is a Senegalese musician and griot, who navigates the Italian farmlands in search of Jululu, the African collective soul. To end up in one of the ghettos where immigrant agricultural workers live during the harvest season.

Yvan Sagnet is an important exponent of migrant labourers’ revolts in Italy. His movie gets awarded two months after the SABR trial, issued by the Court of Lecce on 12 July, which -thanks to the key witness of Sagnet – condemned in the first instance gangmasters and  agricultural entrepreneurs, which had been denounced during the 2011 revolt at Bonardi’s farm in Nardo.


At the same time, migrant labour conditions have for from improved, and ghettos continue to spring up in the fields of Puglia, Basilicata and Calabria -despite the frequent destruction that has been repeatedly reported on these pages. Notably in Rignano, where regional authorities have eradicated the informal settlement, which hosted over 2000 labourers during the Summer months, a new ghetto has arisen, this time in the form of a ‘camping’. Commenting the release of a recent report by the syndicate FLAI-CGIL, president Giovanni  Mininini says that “substantially nothing has changed” in the way labourers get recruited and subjected to exploitation in this hidden corner of Southern Italy.








  1. Cultural Anthropology Leave a reply
  2. Movements Leave a reply
  3. conflict minerals: cracks in the mirror Leave a reply
  4. The Terror of Peace Leave a reply
  5. Oro Rosso, Sangue Nero Leave a reply
  6. Foggia: new evictions underway Leave a reply
  7. Agromafia: the report Leave a reply
  8. ghetto deaths: new accusations Leave a reply
  9. ghetto deaths: who is responsible? Leave a reply