Timothy Raeymaekers


Violent Capitalism and Hybrid Identity in Eastern Congo: Power to the Margins, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press (2016).

Edited volumes

Raeymaekers, T. (2013) The Mediterranean migration frontier, in ACME: an International E-Journal for Critical Geographies.

Korf, B. and Raeymaekers, T. eds. (2013) Violence on the margins: states, conflict, and borderlands, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T., eds. (2004) Conflict and social transformation in Eastern DR Congo, Gent, Academia Press (English and French).

Arnaut, K., Hojbjerg, C. et Raeymaekers, T. (eds.) Gouvernance et ethnographie en temps de crise: de l’étude des ordres émergents dans l’Afrique entre guerre et paix, Politique africaine, n° 111, octobre 2008.

Raeymaekers, T. and Vlassenroot, K. (eds.) governance without government in Africa’s protracted crises, Afrika Focus, 21 n° 2, December 2008 (This edited collection, the outcome of a laborious collective endeavour between the Universities of Ghent, Copenhagen and Davidson College has – notwithstanding its publication in a non-Thompson index journal – generated wide international acclaim for its pioneering reconceptualization of political rule under conditions of protracted armed crisis in Africa (particularly Ivory Coast, DRC, Sudan and Somalia). 

Book chapters

Raeymaekers, T. (2014) The social geography of violent conflict, in: Bruck, T., Justino, P. and Verwimp, P., eds., Micro-level perspective on the dynamics of conflict, violence and development, Oxford and malden, Oxford University Press.

Raeymaekers, T. (2014 forthcoming), Captured in movement: the precarious space of youth displacement in eastern DRC, in Hammar, A., ed., ‘Displacement Economies: Paradoxes of Crisis and Creativity in African Contexts’, London, Zed Books.

Raeymaekers, T. (2012d), The State, the economy and the subaltern: routines of state formation in the Congo-Ugandan borderland, in: Donnan, H. and Wilson, T.M. The Blackwell Companion to Border Studies, Basingstoke: Blackwell.

Raeymaekers, T. (2008a) Verval of orde: naar een nieuwe theorie van “state collapse” in Afrika, in: Doom, R. (ed.) Conflict en Ontwikkeling. Overleven in de grensgebieden van de globalisering, Gent, Academia press, 2008.

Raeymaekers, T. (2008) Conflict and food security in Beni-Lubero, in: Alinovi, L., Hemrich, G., Russo, L. (ed.) Beyond relief. Food security in protracted crises, Bourton on Dunsmore, Practical Action Publishing, 2008.

Vlassenroot, K., Ntububa, S. and Raeymaekers, T. (2008) Food security responses to the protracted crisis context of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in: Alinovi, L., Hemrich, G., Russo, L. (ed.) Beyond relief. Food security in protracted crises, Bourton on Dunsmore, Practical Action Publishing, 2008.

Raeymaekers, T. and Vlassenroot, K., Le politiche di ribellione nell’Ituri. Ordino politico nel “cuore di tenebra”, in: Fiamingo, C. (ed.), Conflitti d’Africa, Roma, Aracne editrice, 2006.

Vlassenroot, K., Ntububa, S. and Raeymaekers, T., Food security responses to the protracted crisis context of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (French and English), report for FAO-Food Security Information for Action, 2006.

Raeymaekers, T., Conflict and food security in Beni-Lubero, (French and English), report for FAO-Food Security Information for Action, 2006.

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T. (2005) ‘Divisez par deux’: conflict and artisan mining in Kamituga (South Kivu), in: Reyntjens, F. and Marysse, S., L’Afrique des Grands Lacs. Annuaire 2004-2005, Paris, L’Harmattan.

Raeymaekers, T., De Verenigde naties en laakbare handelspraktijken in de DR Congo : lessons learned, in: Nauwelaerts, F. (ed.) Bedrijven in Conflictgebieden, Roeselare, Roularta Books, 2004.

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T., le conflit en Ituri, in: Reyntjens, F. and Marysse, S., L’Afrique des Grands Lacs. Annuaire 2002-2003, Paris, L’Harmattan, 2003.


a) Peer reviewed in social science index

Raeymaekers, T. (2013) Postwar conflict and the market for protection: the challenges to Congo’s hybrid peace, International Peacekeeping, pp. 1-18.

Raeymaekers, T. (2012) Reshaping the state in its margins. The state, the market and the subaltern on a Central African frontier, in: Critique of Anthropology, vol. 32 no. 3 (September), pp. 334-350 (This article is an agenda-setting paper situated on the edges of political anthropology and geography. It has spiralled wider academic reflection on the linkages between protracted armed conflict and the transformation of political rule in ‘the margins’. As such it bridges the gap between the ethnography of violence and border(land) studies).

Vlassenroot, K. & T. Raeymaekers (2009) Kivu’s intractable security conundrum, in: African Affairs, 108 (432), pp. 475-484.

Raeymaekers, T. (2010) Protection for Sale? War and the transformation of regulation on the Congo-Ugandan Border, in: Development and Change, 41/4, pp. 563-587 (This article, part of a special issue edited by Tobias Hagmann and Didier Peclard) constitutes more or less my introduction to development studies in of its leading journals and with a wide impact among leading scholars in the field).

Raeymaekers, T. and Jourdan, L. (2009) Economic opportunities and local governance on an African frontier. The case of the Semliki Valley (Congo‐Uganda), in: Journal of Eastern African Studies, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 317 – 332.

Raeymaekers, T. (2009) The silent encroachment of the frontier: a politics of transborder trade in the Semliki Valley (Congo-Uganda), in: Political Geography, 28/1 (January ), pp. 55-65.

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T. (2004) The politics of rebellion and intervention in Ituri: the emergence of a new political complex? in: African Affairs, Volume 103, n° 412, (July), pp.  385-412 (impact factor 1.336).

b) Peer reviewed

Raeymaekers, T. (2010): Not going home: displaced youth after war, in: Forced Migration Review, 36, pp. 21-22.

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T., Le elezioni nella Repubblica Democratica del Congo: in cammino verso la democrazia? Afriche e Orienti, 3-4/ 2007.

Beneduce, R., Jourdan, L., Raeymaekers, T. and Vlassenroot, K. (2006) Violence with a purpose: exploring the functions and meaning of violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo , in: Intervention, the International Journal of Mental Health, Psychosocial Work and Counseling in Areas of Armed Conflict, vol. 4/1, pp. 32-46

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T., Transizione verso la pace nella Repubblica Democratica del Congo ?, in: Afriche e Orienti, 2/2005.

Raeymaekers, T., Su contadini e uomini d’affari: l’economia reale del “Grande Nord”, in: Afriche e Orienti, anno VI, n.1-2/2004.

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T., Conflitto a transizione in Congo , dossier Afriche e Orienti, 1-2/2004.

Non-peer reviewed

Korf, B. und Raeymaekers, T. (2012) Geographie der gewalt, in: Geographische Rundschau, 64 (2), pp. 4-11.

Raeymaekers, T. (2011) Forced Displacement and Youth Employment in the Aftermath of the Congo War: From Making a Living to Making a Life, MICROCON Research Working Paper 38 (November), Brighton, Institute for Development Studies.

Raeymaekers, T. (2010) Borders in a ‘‘borderless’’ world, in: Political Geography, 29 (3), pp. 177-181, March, pp. 177-181.

Raeymaekers, T. (2005) The challenges of frail, failing and failed states, in: Studia Diplomatica, vol. LVIII/2, pp. 35-44.

Raeymaekers, T., Collapse or Order? Questioning State Collapse in Africa, Conflict Research Group Working Paper n°1, May 2005.

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T., The Formation of Centres of Power, Profit and Protection. Conflict and Social Transformation in Eastern DR Congo, Centre of African Studies, University of Copenhagen, January, 2005.

Vlassenroot, K. and Raeymaekers, T., The Formation of New Political Complexes: Dynamics of Conflict in Ituri, Democratic Republic of Congo, Centre of African Studies, University of Copenhagen, October 2003.

Divulgated writings

Raeymaekers, T. (2012) Why history ‘repeats itself’ in eastern DR Congo, in: e-International Relations, 12 December.

Raeymaekers, T. (2009) Osama en de veertig smokkelaars, (Over)leven op de Congolees-Oegandese grens, in: MO*, 28 januari 2009.

Raeymaekers, T. (2007) Sharing the spoils: the reinvigoration of Congo’s political system, in: Politorbis n° 42 (October 2007).

Raeymaekers, T., Network war: an introduction to Congo ’s privatised war economy, Novib, Den Haag, November, 2002 (I still regard this report as my prime contribution to civil society activism in the political ecology of resource conflicts. It has led to several juridical and parliamentary investigations, led to actual arrests and generated a wide public debate about the role of Northern capitalist society in the perpetuation of armed conflict in Subsaharn Africa. It continue to regard this report as a vital source of inspiration in my work). For pdf click here. 

Cuvelier, J, and Raeymaekers, T. (2002) Supporting the war economy in DRC: European companies and the coltan trade, Broederlijk Delen, Brussels. For pdf click here.

Recent Posts

Felandina eviction

Two days ago, the mayor of Bernalda, Domenico Tataranno, officially announced the imminent eviction of the migrant ocupation La Felandina, located in the industrial zone of Metaponto. The building has been occupied since a year by approximately 600 migrant workers, a majority of which are in possession of regular residence papers, according to official police sources. The migrants offer their labour to agricultural enterprises in the area. Since a few years the Basilicata and Calabria coastline has effectively become Southern Italy’s grocery garden: from the famous strawberries harvested in early Spring to the fruit and vegetables that are cultivated here over the Summer and Autumn, production continues throughout the year. Farmers sell their produce under often unfavourable contracts to the big distribution networks through intermediaries located in Puglia and Campania.

Speaking at a public meeting, the mayor said he took his decision after a long series of meetings with the Prefecture, Town Hall, and competent authorities – notwithstanding the acknowledgement, by the territiorial prefecture, that migrant workers who come to the area have difficulty finding alternative forms of accommodation. “It will be up to the State, through the security forces, to implement the eviction in practice. We will try, with the collaboration of those poor people, to find the best solution from a logistic point of view,” Tataranno concluded.

In March this year, the head of Basilicata’s Migrant Policy Coordination, Pietro Simonetti officially promised a temporary reception facility for 150 seasonal migrant workers, which so far has not been concretely defined. In the meantime, therefore, migrant workers have no other alternative other than occupying a new site.

Migrant tent camps in Metaponto, March 2018

It is not the first time it comes to such tensions in the area of Metaponto. Already in 2018, the mayor of Bernalda ordered the clearance of various tent camps located under the town’s bridges and in the many abandoned warehouses in the area. Like much of Basilicata, the area continues to be affected by a progressive abandonment, driven by a lack of institutional capacities and employment opportunities. Specifically, the 2018 eviction followed an open letter in which Metaponto’s residents denounced the, in their view, “disproportionate” presence of immigrant citizens who come to the area to work. Declaring a state of emergency, they asked the mayor to restore law and order in the area. 

The same year, two agricultural entrepreneurs and one gangmaster based in Metaponto had been officially indighted for illicit labour recruitment, which has become an offence under the new anti-racket legislation. Altogether, these events reveal once more the paradox of the current legislative context, which regards migrant labour intermediation as a criminal offense, but at the same time refuses to address its root causes beyond a mere logistical perspective. 

La Felandina (c) OMB
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